Main Article Content
Background: Orthodontic tooth movement is characterized by tissue reactions, which consist of an inflammatory response in periodontal ligament and followed by bone remodeling in the periodontium depending on the forces applied. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in saliva during orthodontic tooth movement using different magnitude of continuous orthodontic forces. Materials and Methods: Thirty orthodontic patients (12 males and 18 females) aged 17-23 years with class II division I malocclusion all requiring bilateral maxillary first premolar extractions were randomly divided into three groups according to the magnitude of the force application (40, 60 and 80gm). A sectional fixed appliance was bonded and designed to give labial force to the maxillary first premolar for three weeks. Unstimulated saliva was collected from the patients before force application, then 1 hour after force application, followed by 1 day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days.Salivary levels of ALP were measured using spectrophotometer and compared with the baseline level. Results: The results revealed that ALP enzymelevel increased with increasing magnitude of orthodontic force (from 40 to 80gm). This was statistically insignificant after 1 hour and 1 day of force application, but significant after 7, 14 and 21 days.The ALP level significantly increased from baseline after 7 days of force application and peaked at 21 days for all the three force levels. Conclusions: The ALP level reflect the biological activity that takes place in the periodontium during orthodontic tooth movement, and therefore they can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring of correct orthodontic tooth movement in clinical practice.
Orthodontics, Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
Licenses and Copyright
The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):
- JBCD applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.
- If you have written permission to do so, yes. If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner. If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies. It's up to you to ascertain what rights you have—if any—to use that content.
- Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their PLOS paper, but that’s not necessarily the case – it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper. Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always give proper attribution.
- If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.
- JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.